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Finite element engine

Finite element icon

The core component of Impetus Solver

Our GPU accelerated Finite Element Engine is a robust, accurate, and user-friendly tool for a wide range of applications, with primary focus on weapon effects simulations.

As a core component of the IMPETUS Solver, it is used to model all solid structures, except for shaped charge jets and EFP’s which (due to enormous deformations) are modelled with Surface SPH.

It is an explicit Lagrangian thermo-mechanical solver with unique higher order elements that can handle very large deformations. It is also fully coupled to our Particle, SPH and CFD solvers.

An important strategy is to keep the number of pure numerical input parameters at a minimum. This makes our FE Engine easy to use when compared to most legacy codes.

Hybrid III dummy models in a vehicle
Structural response
Composite model showing delamination using cohesive failure criteria
Bullet ricochet after impacting a surface

Supported material classes include

  • Metals
  • Ceramics
  • Polymers and rubbers
  • Foams
  • Concrete
  • Fibre composites and fabrics
  • Granular media
  • Propellants

Discrete particle

Discrete particle icon

Accurate IED simulation

Our discrete particle engine is a tool for simulating IEDs embedded in sand/soil. It is easy to use and provides accurate predictions of loadings on vehicles structures exposed to the soil ejecta.

Thanks to the Lagrangian description of motion, coupling between the Particle end FE engines is straightforward and reliable. It is GPU accelerated and has pre-calibrated models for various explosives and for generic dry and wet sands.

Vehicle response to IED's
Energetic processes
IED mineblast
High explosives

Typical applications

  • IEDs (Particle Engine for explosive and sand, FE for solid structures)
  • ERA panels (SPH for jet/target plates, Discrete Particle Engine for explosives).

Surface SPH

Surface SPH icon

For shaped charges and EFPs

Our Surface SPH solver is a state-of-the-art tool for simulating materials undergoing extremely large deformations.

It is GPU accelerated and uses surface tracking to enable full coupling with our CFD solver. This makes it ideal for simulating complex phenomena such as shaped charges and EFPs.

Shaped Charge jet formation
Shaped Charge jet formation
Explosively Formed Projectile
Debris impacting a structure

Typical applications involving the surface sph

  • Shaped Charge jet formation (SPH for liner/casing/wave shaper, CFD for explosives)
  • EFP (SPH for liner/casing, CFD for explosives)
  • UNDEX (SPH for water, CFD for explosives/air, FE for solid structures)
  • ERA panels (SPH for jet/target plates, Discrete Particle Engine or CFD for explosives).
  • Hydraulic RAM
  • Hyper-velocity impact

Supported material classes include

  • Metal
  • Concrete
  • Ceramics
  • Liquids

Computational fluid dynamics

CFD icon

GPU accelerated blast loading

Our CFD Engine is a cutting-edge solver for complex blast loading problems. It is ultra-fast (GPU accelerated), explicit, and fully coupled to both the FE Engine and to Surface SPH.

This makes it ideal for simulating a wide range of blast scenarios, ranging from contact detonations to urban blast scenarios.

Detonation of an explosive charge by a nearby explosion
Fragmentation and blast loading using CFD
Urban blast simulation using CFD
Wind tunnel simulation for exterior ballistics

Typical applications involving CFD engine

  • Contact detonations (CFD for explosives and air, FE for solid structures)
  • Interior ballistics (CFD for combustion products and air, FE for unburned propellant and solid structures)
  • Shaped Charge jet formation (SPH for liner/casing/wave shaper, CFD for explosives)
  • Hyper-velocity aerodynamics (CFD for air, FE for solid structures)
  • Fragmentation (CFD for explosives and air, FE for solid structures)
  • Blast loading (CFD for explosives and air, FE for solid structures)
  • EFP (SPH for liner/casing, CFD for explosives)

Vulnerable area assessment tool

VAA icon

Protection coverage analysis

This specialised tool for protection coverage analysis helps engineers identify vulnerable areas in the armour and quantify its capacity at different angles of attack. It guides in the development process and visually presents results to customers.

Minimum input to the tool is a geometric description of the vehicle, and the threats penetration capacity in the different armour materials. However, it also has advanced features to handle edge effects, gaps, heat-affected zones, and refined angle dependencies.

Tank showing vulnerable area
Tank showcasing the VAA tool


  • Threat assessment
  • Automated report generation
  • Find weaknesses in early development stage

Fragmentation tool

Fragmentation tool icon

Investigate fragmentation beyond finite element simulation

Fragments generated by Finite Element or Surface SPH engines can be further analysed with the fragmentation tool. Plot the fragment distribution. Extract a sub-set of fragments.

Calculate the extended fragment trajectories using the drag equation. Set up virtual targets and the energies at the hit spots. Export fragments for use as input in new simulations.

Fragmentation tool analysis
Fragmentation process showcasing node splitting

Typical applications involving fragmentation tool

  • Fragment distribution analysis
  • Virtual arena tests
  • Use as input for new simulations

Our engineers will help you select and calibrate appropriate project simulations to best determine whether Impetus Solver is the best fit for your needs.

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Secure & scalable GPU resources

Our secure CLOUD service offers flexible access to scalable GPU processing from anywhere in the world. We are ISO 27001 certified.

Our solution provides high performance computing without the need for localised investment in hardware and maintenance.

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