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Mine-Resistant Ambush Protected vehicle exposed to IED

Highly accurate weapons effect simulations

Impetus DEFENSE is a product tailored towards defense customers, such as military vehicle manufacturers, ammunition and weapons producers, providers of blast protection and fortification, as well as national defense agencies.

Impetus DEFENSE expands the popular Impetus BASIC package with modules for Discrete Particle (DP), Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Vulnerable Area Assessment (VAA) and Fragmentation Tool.

The complementing modules increase the range of applicability, from the modelling of solid structures at small or large deformations, to soils (DP), explosives and gases (CFD) and liquids or solid materials undergoing extreme deformations (SPH). The different modules are fully coupled to each other.

In addition, Impetus DEFENSE comes with a powerful interactive fragment tracking and statistics tool embedded in the GUI.

An Impetus DEFENSE license also unlocks access to a large database of threat models, templates and material calibrations on Impetus MARKET.

Structural response


Fragmentation and blast loading using CFD


Tank showcasing the VAA tool




Impetus Afea works closely with leading defense manufacturers and defense agencies in developing and refining our products. We have invested heavily over many years in building up our core algorithms and used experimental data to calibrate and validate the performance.

Our partners provide valuable feedback in this never ending loop of incremental improvements.This research has often been conducted in direct collaboration with our defense partners and has enabled us to achieve robust and reliable results within most aspects concerning the terminal effects of blast and ballistics.

We also work closely with leading research institutes and selected academic institutions. This provides us with access to world leading competence and experimental facilities and our software solution offers a unique complement to the research work. Projects are mix of self-funding and governmental funding.

The focus on research, continuous iterations and improvements has allowed us to integrate knowledge of new processes into operational software capabilities, often in the form of readily available objects on Impetus MARKET. It allows us to achieve a high level of technological maturity.

In addition we are active sponsors and participants in several symposia, events and working groups globally, as well as our own Impetus Conference held bi-annually in Norway.

As a user of Impetus, you directly benefit from the knowledge that our product has a solid foundation in process knowledge, engineering competence and is backed by real data and experiments. We are constantly refining the tool and improving steadily by each iteration.

Main features

Fragmentation process showcasing node splitting

High explosives and fragmentation

Model and predict fragmentation processes. Utilise the built-in library with high explosive calibrations and advanced material models accounting for rate effects and different failure modes.

Explosives and detonation products are typically modelled with a Computations Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach and fragmenting shells with Finite Elements (FE). Setting up a simulation model for full CFD-FE coupling is straightforward.

Terminal ballistics

Impetus DEFENSE includes a pre-designed template for terminal ballistics processes and a comprehensive library of predefined threats. The generated command files are open for customisation according to the user’s specific requirements.

A precise description of both the threat and target is crucial. Utilise our advanced material models, with ability to account for relevant physical mechanisms at extreme pressures and strain rates.

Terminal ballistics
Vehicle response to IED's

IED and mine blast

The ATD response is automatically evaluated and compared to standard damage criteria. An automatically generated summary is available from the GUI.

Benefit from a separately licensable fully calibrated 50th percentile frontal impact Hybrid III dummy available on Impetus MARKET.

Shaped charge

Simulate your Shaped Charge formation process using a computationally efficient coupled CFD-SPH approach. Explosive materials are generally simulated using Eulerian Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), while solid materials like liner and casing are modelled with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH).

Jet length, shape, velocity profile and particulation data are automatically output and easily visualised in the GUI. To get started, we suggest utilising our built-in templates for Shaped Charges and EFPs.

Shaped Charge jet formation

Additional capabilities

Vehicle response to IED's
Vehicle response to IED’s 

Build a detailed model of your vehicle. Full coupling between IED, soil ejecta and vehicle structure. Automatic reporting of ATD response and comparison to standard damage criteria.

Terminal ballistics
Terminal ballistics 

Impetus DEFENSE comes with a built-in template for terminal ballistics processes and an extensive library of pre-defined threats.

Shaped Charge jet formation
Shaped Charge formation 

Simulate your Shaped Charge formation process using a coupled CFD-SPH approach. Jets statistics is automatically output and can be visualised in the GUI.

Fragmentation process showcasing node splitting

Thanks to our node splitting technique, fragmentation processes can be modelled using Finite Elements, without element erosion and its associated loss of mass.

Urban blast simulation using CFD
Air blast and shock waves 

Our GPU-accelerated ultra-fast CFD solver is ideally suited for air blast simulations. Model anything from contact detonations to urban blast scenarios.

Structural response on a concrete model
Structural response 

Cutting-edge concrete model designed for both quasi-static and highly dynamic loading conditions. A meticulously calibrated and well-documented material object is readily accessible on the Impetus MARKET.

FE model of concrete material

Cutting-edge concrete model designed for both quasi-static and highly dynamic loading conditions. A meticulously calibrated and well-documented material object is readily accessible on the Impetus MARKET.

Underwater detonation
Underwater explosions (UNDEX) 

Use Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) to simulate water and investigate phenomena such as bubble oscillations, jetting, collapse, and interactions with surrounding structures.

Combustion process
Interior Ballistics (IB) 

Model propellants and follow the combustion process. The gas dynamics are simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and structural components with Finite Elements (FE).

Detonation of an explosive charge by a nearby explosion
Ammunition sensitivity 

Apply Lee-Tarver’s ignition and growth model for in-depth deflagration-to-detonation analyses, or practical pressure-time-based criteria for large-scale sympathetic detonation studies.

Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP) hitting a target
Fragment Simulating Projectile (FSP) 

Easy modelling of FSP-target interaction employing pre-calibrated FSP object on Impetus MARKET along with the terminal ballistic template.

Explosively Formed Projectile
Explosively Formed Projectile (EFP) 

Simulate the formation of an EFP using parameterised template on Impetus MARKET. The generated projectile can be exported to subsequent terminal ballistics models.

Fragments from a hand grenade
Hand grenades 

Model the detonation process and the subsequent effect of fragments and blast loads on a structure. Fast shrapnel trajectory tracking with the interactive fragment tool.


Explore the wide array of pre-calibrated threats available on Impetus MARKET.

Bullet ricochet after impacting a surface
Ricochet simulations 

The terminal ballistics template allows engineers to predict ricochet by effortlessly adjusting parameters such as pitch, yaw, and impact angle.

High explosives
Library of high explosives 

The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) engine is equipped with a library of Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation-of-state calibrations for the most commonly used high explosives.

Wind tunnel simulation for exterior ballistics
Wind tunnel/Exterior ballistics

Our virtual wind tunnel allows for tumbling and deforming objects. It is optimal for hypersonic flow and can be used for certain aspects of exterior ballistics.

Urban blast simulation using CFD
Urban blast 

The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) engine is a rapid tool for simulating urban blasts. Its support for mapping between grids is valuable when modelling very large stand-off distances.

Blast loading on laminated windows
Blast loading on laminated windows

Explicit modelling of failure and crack propagation using higher order elements and node splitting. Geometrically correct representation of PVB and glass.

Tank driving on a terrain

An extremely robust handling of non-linearities gives Impetus Solver a competitive advantage in mobility analysis scenarios involving complex contacts and materials undergoing large deformations.

Debris impacting a structure
Hyper-velocity impact

Study the effect of space debris impacting satellite structures in the hyper-velocity regime.

Hydrodynamic ram using Surface SPH
Hydrodynamic ram

Surface SPH allows for detailed view of material interfaces otherwise not possible with particle simulation.

Model of a bird strike simulation
Bird strike

Used within aeronautics to design and evaluate improvements to structures and components.

Ceramic model exposed to loading

Unique in-house developed models for ceramic materials in both tensile and compressive loading.

Seated Hybrid III dummy model
Dynamic relaxation

Use our specially designed functionality to cut high frequencies and obtain efficient computational performance.

Hybrid III dummy models in a vehicle
Hybrid III dummy (including MIL-LX leg)

Fully calibrated 50th percentile frontal impact Hybrid III dummy available on Impetus MARKET.

Long rod impact
Long rod impact

Select from a multitude of APFSDS threats and advanced protective materials from the Impetus MARKET library.

full list of defense features

Blast and terminal ballistics

  • Long rod impact (APFSDS)
  • Library of high explosives
  • FSP (Fragment simulating projectile)
  • Buried charges (Mines & IEDs)
  • Shaped charge (Circular & linear)
  • EFP (Explosively formed projectile)
  • Air blast loading (Close range & Long range)
  • Bird strike
  • Fragmenting charges/High explosives
  • Underwater explosions (Close range and Long range)
  • Deflagration to detonation processes (insensitivity of munitions)
  • Ricochet simulations
  • Small/Medium/Large calibre projectiles
  • Library of high explosives
  • Wind tunnel/exterior ballistics
  • Urban blast
  • Hand grenades
  • Mobility
  • Hyper-velocity impact
  • Hydrodynamic RAM
  • Blast loading laminated glass
  • Dynamic relaxation
  • Structural response

Target materials

  • High strength steel
  • Polymers
  • Rubber
  • Reinforced Concrete
  • Ceramics
  • Fibre composites
  • Laminated glass
  • Foams
  • ERA (Explosive Reactive Armour)
  • Metallic materials


  • Military vehicles
  • VIP Vehicles
  • Protective Equipment/vests (PPE)
  • ATD HIII model
  • Buildings/Structures
  • Inner ballistics – powder burn


  • VAA Tool (Vulnerability Assessment Analysis)
  • Buried mine (IED) loading on vehicles
  • Hybrid III ATD dummy (including MIL-LX Leg)


  • Fragmentation trajectory analysis tool
  • Terminal ballistics template
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Impetus MARKET

Impetus MARKET is our library of materials, object meshes, template files and projectiles designed to save you time and effort. Sign up today and get access to high quality objects for use in your simulation projects!

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Our engineers will help you select and calibrate appropriate project simulations to best determine whether Impetus Solver is the best fit for your needs.

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